Functional Testing Interview Questions | Most Asked Interview Questions

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Functional Testing Interview Questions
Functional Testing Interview Questions

Functional Testing Interview Questions | Most Asked Interview Questions

Functional Testing Interview Questions Set 1

#1 What do you understand by the term โ€˜Functional testing’?

A black box testing technique, where the functionality of an application is tested to generate the desired output by providing certain input is called โ€˜Functional testingโ€™.

The role of functional testing is not only to validate the behavior of the application as per the requirement document specification but is also to verify whether the application is ready to be released into the live environment or not.

Given below are a few functional testing techniques that are commonly used:

  • Unit testing
  • Smoke testing
  • Integration testing
  • System testing
  • Usability testing
  • Regression testing
  • User Acceptance testing

#2 What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?

Difference between test scenarios and test cases is that

  1. Test Scenarios: A Test Scenario is any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility.
  2. Test Cases: It is a document that contains the steps that have to be executed; it has been planned earlier.
  3. Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it’s a short program used to test part of the functionality of the software system. In other words, a written set of steps should be performed manually.

#3 Explain what Test Plan is? What is the information that should be covered in Test Plan?

A test plan can be defined as a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of testing activities and a test plan should cover the following details.

  • Test Strategy
  • Test Objective
  • Exit/Suspension Criteria
  • Resource Planning
  • Test Deliverables

#4 What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?

White box testing technique involves the selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are

  1. Statement Coverage
  2. Decision Coverage

#5  In white box testing, what do you verify?

In white-box testing following steps are verified.

  1. Verify the security holes in the code
  2. Verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code
  3. Verify the flow of structure according to the document specification
  4. Verify the expected outputs
  5. Verify all conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application
  6. Verify the line by line coding and cover 100% testing

Functional Testing Interview Questions

#6  What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?

Black box testing is the software testing method that is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are

  1. Equivalence Partitioning
  2. Boundary value analysis
  3. Cause-effect graphing

#7 What is Equivalence partitioning testing?

Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique that divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method, it reduces the time required for software testing.

#8 What is Boundary value testing?

Test boundary conditions on, below, and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.

#9 What is Verification and Validation in Software Testing?

Verification: It is a static analysis technique. Here, testing is done without executing the code. Examples include โ€“ Reviews, Inspection, and walkthrough.

Validation: It is a dynamic analysis technique where testing is done by executing the code. Examples include functional and non-functional testing techniques.

In the V model, the development and QA activities are done simultaneously. There is no discrete phase called Testing, rather testing starts right from the requirement phase. ย The verification and validation activities go hand in hand. This is an important Functional Testing Interview Questions

#10 Should testing be done only after the build and execution phases are complete?

Testing is always done after the build and execution phases Earlier we catch a defect, the more cost-effective it is. For example, fixing a defect in maintenance is ten times more costly than fixing it during execution.

#11 What is XPath?

XPath also called as XML Path is a language to query XML documents. It is an important strategy to locate elements in selenium. It consists of a path expression along with some conditions. Here, you can easily write XPath script/query to locate any element on the webpage. It is designed to allow the navigation of XML documents, with the purpose of selecting individual elements, attributes, or some other part of an XML document for specific processing. It also produces reliable locators.

#12 What is the difference between Absolute and Relative Path?

  • Absolute XPath

It is the direct way to find the element, but the disadvantage of the absolute XPath is that, if there are any changes made in the path of the element then that XPath gets failed. For example: /HTML/body/div[1]/section/div[1]/div

  • Relative XPath

For Relative XPath, the path starts from the middle of the HTML DOM structure. It begins with the double forward-slash (//), which means it can search the element anywhere on the webpage. For example: //input[@id=โ€˜ap_emailโ€™]

#13 Explain Load Testing on websites?

To access a website, a user sends a โ€œrequestโ€ to that websiteโ€™s server, and the server sends back a response in the form of the website you want to access. To load test a website, quality assurance engineers and automation engineers just need to multiply the number of responses sent to simulate different traffic loads. The web serverโ€™s response to the influx of virtual users can then be measured. This is used to determine performance issues and server capacity.

#14 What is meant by Defect Cascading?

Defect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. One defect triggers the other defect. When a defect is present in any stage but is not identified, hide to other phases without getting noticed. This will result in an increase in the number of defects.

Let us understand this by an example.

You are designing the Login Module of a WebPage:

In phase 1 โ€“ You are designing Register User Module for Login and mobile number is mandatory but you can leave it blank due to a bug that gets unnoticed.

In Phase 2 โ€“ You will design the login form having username and password. The password is OTP which will be sent to Userโ€™s registered mobile number.

Now as the Register module has a bug that mobile number can be left blank so this may lead to Login failure or maybe some system error or crash if a null mobile number is not handled. This is known as defect cascading.

#15 What are the different strategies for rollout to end-users? 

The strategies to be followed for the rollout are as follows:

  • Pilot
  • Gradual Implementation
  • Phased Implementation
  • Parallel Implementation

#16 Which technique should be considered in the script โ€œif there is neither frame id nor frame nameโ€?

If frame name and frame id are not available, then we can use frame by index. For example, there are 3 frames on a web page and if none of them have a frame name and frame id, then we can still select those frames by using frame (zero-based) index attribute. All the frame will have an index number like the first frame would be at index โ€œ0โ€, the second at index โ€œ1โ€ and the third at index โ€œ2โ€.

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);

#17 How to take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

By using the TakeScreenshot function you can take a screenshot. With the help of getScreenshotAs() method, you can simply save that screenshot. Example: File scrFile = ((TakeScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(outputType.FILE);

Functional Testing Interview Questions

#18 What are the categories of debugging?

Categories for debugging

  1. Brute force debugging
  2. Backtracking
  3. Cause elimination
  4. Program Slicing
  5. Fault tree analysis

#19 What is fault-masking explain with example?

When the presence of one defect hides the presence of another defect in the system, it is known as fault masking.

Example: If the “Negative Value” cause firing of unhandled system exception, the developer will prevent the negative values input. This will resolve the issue and hide the defect of unhandled exception firing.

#20 While monitoring your project what all things you have to consider?

The things that have to be taken in considerations are

  • Is your project on schedule
  • Are you over budget
  • Are you working towards the same career goal
  • Have you got enough resources
  • Are there any warning signs of impending problems
  • Is there any pressure from management to complete the project sooner

#21 What is the test management review and why it is important?

Management review is also referred to as Software Quality Assurance or SQA. SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test managers to benchmark the project against the set standards.

#22 What are the best practices for software quality assurance?

The best practices for an effective SQA implementation is

  • Continuous Improvement
  • Documentation
  • Tool Usage
  • Metrics
  • Responsibility by team members
  • Experienced SQA auditors

#23 When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared?

RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities.

#24 Mention what are the categories of defects?

Mainly there are three defect categories

  • Wrong: When a requirement is implemented incorrectly
  • Missing: It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met
  • Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements

#25 On what basis you can arrive at an estimation for your project?

To estimate your project, you have to consider the following points:

  • Divide the whole project into the smallest tasks
  • Allocate each task to team members
  • Estimate the effort required to complete each task
  • Validate the estimation

#26 What is Rapid Application Development?

Rapid Application Development (RAD) is formally a parallel development of functions and subsequent integration. Components/functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development of the product are possible using this methodology. However the product specification will need to be developed for the product at some point, and the project will need to be placed under more formal controls before going into production. This is an important Functional Testing Interview Questions

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